145.000 žena izbjeglih iz Sirije samo se bori za opstanak svojih obitelji

08-07-2014 08:15:45

Jedna četvrtina žena izbjeglih iz Sirije uhvaćena je u spiralu siromaštva, izolacije i straha

Više od 145.000 izbejgličkih obitelji iz Sirije u Egiptu, Libanonu, Iraku i Jordanu – ili svako četvrto izbjeglo domaćinstvo – vode žene koje se same bore za opstanak, kaže se u izvješću koje je danas objavila UN-ova agencija za izbjeglice.

Izvješće objavljeno danas otkriva svakodnevnu borbu sklapanja kraja s krajem dok žene pokušavaju održati dostojanstvo i brinuti se za obitelji u trošnim i prenapućenim domaćinstvima, nesigurnim skloništima i šatorima. Mnoge žive pod pretnjom nasilja i eksploatacije dok se njihova djeca suočavaju s rastućom traumom i nevoljama.

"Žene same – borba za preživljavanjem izbjeglih Sirijki" temelji se na osobnim svjedočanstvima 135 žena prikupljenima tijekom tri mjeseca početkom 2014. godine. Prisiljene da preuzmu samostalnu odgovoronost za svoje obitelji nakon pogibije ili zarobljeništa njihovih supruga, ili nekog drugog oblika razdvojenosti, bivaju uhvaćene u spiral siromaštva, izlacije i straha.

Intervjuirane žene su kao najveći izazov naznačile nedostatak sredstava. Većina ima problema pri plaćanju najamnina, nabavci hrane te kupovini osnovnih kućnih potrepština. Mnoge su potrošile svu ušteđevinu – čak su prodale i burme. Samo 20% njih ima plaćeni posao; mnogima je teško doći do zapolenja ili se suočavaju s mnogo drugih problema. Samo 20% može računati na pomoć odraslih rođaka. Neke uživaju velikodušnost domicilnog stanovništva – poput vlasnika stanova koji im ne naplaćuju najam ili džamija. Neke šalju decu da rade. Četvrtina dobija novčanu pomoć od UNHCR-a i drugih humanitarnih agencija; dvije trećine onih koje su dobile pomoć izjavljuju da im je to jedini izvor prihoda. Trećina žena izjavljuje da nema dovoljno hrane.

UNHCR je pozvao na hitnu, novu intervenciju donatora, vlada zemalja azila i humanitarnih agencija. "Za stotine tisuća žena, bijeg iz svoje razrušene domovine tek je prvi korak na putu neprekidnih nedaća" rekao je Antonio Gutteres, Visoki povjerenik UN-a za izbjeglice. "Njima je ponestalo novca, svakodnevno se suočavaju sa sigurnosnim prijetnjama, a tretiraju ih kao izgnanike samo zbog toga što su izgubile svoje muževe u surovom ratu. To je sramota. Ponižavaju ih zato što su izgubile sve."

"Žene izbegle iz Sirije su vezivo koje drži na okupu pokidane niti društva. Njihova je snaga izvanredna, ali one su u toj borbi prepuštene same sebi. Njihovi glasovi predstavljaju apel za pomoć i zaštitu koji se ne smije ignorirati," rekla je Angelina Jolie, Posebna izaslanica UNHCR-a.

Život u egzilu za ove žene znači da su one te koje zarađuju i skrbe o obitelji, koje vode računa o sebi i svojim obiteljima, daleko od svojih zajednica i tradicionalnih stupova podrške. Većini njih je ovaj teret pretežak, a mnoge potpuno zavise od vanjske pomoći.

Šezdeset posto žena s kojima je razgovarano izrazile su osećanje neizvjesnosti, a svaka treća je bila previše uplašena ili skrhana čak i da izađe iz kuće. Nuha je u Kairo stigla s mužem, ali njega su ubili na poslu. "Ne želim izlaziti iz kuće zbog bola koji osećam u srcu," kazala je. "Pobjegli smo od smrti u Siriji, da bi nas ona dočekala ovde u Egiptu."

Mnoge se žale na redovno, verbalno uznemiravanje – od strane taksista, vozača autobusa, vlasnika stanova, pružatelja usluga, muškaraca u trgovinama, na tržnici, u javnom prijevozu, čak i pri podjeli humanitarne pomoći.

"Žena koja je sama u Egiptu postaje plijen svih muškaraca," kaže Diala, koja živi u Aleksandriji. Zahva koja boravi u Jordanu, kaže da su je maltretirale čak i izbjeglice kada je preuzeti bonove za hranu. "Živjela sam dostojanstveno, a sada me niko ne poštuje jer nemam muškraca uz sebe."

Jedna žena je priznala da je bila žrtva silovanja, ali mnoge nisu spremne pričati o seksualnom i rodno zasnovanom nasilju. "Nikada se ne bih obratila za pomoć nekoj organizaciji," kaže Nur iz Libanona. "Posula bih sol na ranu i čutila, prije nego li ikome išta kažem."

Većina se brine o posljedicama koje će snositi njihova djeca. "Moram skrbiti o novcu i o školi. Moram im pružiti zaštitu, staviti hranu na stol i pružiti majčinsku ljubav, sve u isto vrijeme. Osjećam se kao prebijena," rekla je Dina u Egiptu.

Više od 150 organizacija pruža usluge ili pomoć ženama izbjeglicama iz Sirije i njihovim obiteljima. Istraživanje je pokazalo brojne primjere žena izbjeglica koje preuzimaju inicijativu, pomažu jedne drugima i tragaju za rješenjima za svakodnevnu borbu. Izvješće je pokazalo i brojna djela dobrote i velikodušnosti zemalja azila i primajućih zajednica.

Ali je otkrilo i da ove pomoći nije bilo u dovoljnoj meri i poslalo apel donatorima da učine više kako bi pomogli ženama izbjeglim iz Sirije da stanu na noge i zarade dovoljno za život. Uz uklanjanje viznih i drugih ograničenja, zbog kojih je svaka peta žena odvojena od svog supruga ili obitelji, izvješće traži od vlada zemalja azila da iznašu rješenje za njihovo spajanje. Velika pomoć potrebna je i primajućim zajednicama. Mnoge poteškoće s kojima se suočavaju ove žene – uz porast tenzija – odraz su opžih problema s kojima su suočene zajednice u kojima žive.

S 2,8 milijuna izbjeglih i milijunima raseljenih ljudi, sirijska je prerasla u najveću izbegličku krizu na svijetu. Od početka 2014. godine, više od 100.000 izbjeglica iz Sirije biva svakog meseca registrirano u sujsednim zemljama. Očekuje se da će do kraja ove godine, ukupan broj izbjeglica iz Sirije dostići 3,6 milijuna

VIŠE INFORMACIJA

Cjelovito izvješće i fotografije s video snimkama dostupni su na poveznici: http://unhcr.org/womanalonemedia/

145,000 Syrian refugee women fight for survival as they head families alone

08-07-2014 08:15:45

One quarter of Syrian refugee women caught in a spiral of poverty, isolation and fear

More than 145,000 Syrian refugee families in Egypt, Lebanon, Iraq and Jordan – or one in four of all households – are headed by women facing a lone fight for survival, a new UNHCR report reveals today.

The report lifts the veil on a daily struggle to make ends meet, as the women battle to maintain their dignity and care for their families in run-down overcrowded homes, insecure makeshift shelters and tents. Many live under the threat of violence or exploitation, and their children face mounting trauma and distress.

"Woman Alone – the Fight for Survival by Syrian Refugee Women" is based on the personal testimony of 135 of those women, given over three months of interviews in early 2014. Forced to take sole responsibility for their families after their men were killed, captured, or otherwise separated, they are caught in a spiral of hardship, isolation and anxiety.

The number one difficulty reported by the women is a lack of resources. Most of the women are struggling to pay the rent, put food on the table and buy basic household items. Many have reached the end of their savings – even selling off their wedding rings. Only one-fifth have paid work; many find it hard to get a job, or have too much else on their plate. Only one-fifth have support from other adult relatives. Some benefit from local generosity – such as landlords who let them stay rent free, or mosques. Some send their children to work. A quarter receive cash assistance from UNHCR and other aid agencies; two-thirds of those who got assistance are entirely dependent on it. A third of the women say they do not have enough to eat.

UNHCR called for urgent new action from donors, host governments and aid agencies. "For hundreds of thousands of women, escaping their ruined homeland was only the first step in a journey of grinding hardship." said António Guterres, UN High Commissioner for Refugees. "They have run out of money, face daily threats to their safety, and are being treated as outcasts for no other crime than losing their men to a vicious war. It's shameful. They are being humiliated for losing everything."

"Syrian refugee women are the glue holding together a broken society. Their strength is extraordinary, but they are struggling alone. Their voices are an appeal for help and protection which cannot be ignored," said Angelina Jolie, UNHCR Special Envoy.

Life in exile for these women has meant becoming the main breadwinner and caregiver, fending for themselves and their families, away from their communities and traditional sources of support. For most, the burden is overwhelming, and many are entirely dependent on outside assistance.

Sixty per cent of the women interviewed expressed feelings of insecurity, and one in three were too scared or overwhelmed even to leave their homes. Nuha came to Cairo with her husband, but he was shot and killed while at work. "I don't want to leave the house because of the sadness in my heart," she said. "We left death in Syria only to find it waiting for us here in Egypt."

Many women complained of regular verbal harassment - by taxi drivers, bus drivers, landlords, and service providers, as well as men in shops, at the market, on public transport, and even at aid distributions.

"A woman alone in Egypt is prey to all men," said Diala, who lives in Alexandria. Zahwa, in Jordan, says she was even harassed by refugees when collecting food coupons. "I was living in dignity, but now no one respects me because I'm not with a man," she said.

One woman reported being raped, but many were not prepared to discuss sexual and gender based violence. "I would never turn to an organisation for help," said Noor from Lebanon. "I would put salt on the wound and stay quiet, but I'd never ever say anything to anyone."

Most of the women were concerned about the impact on their children. "I have to worry about the finances and school. I have to protect them, provide for them, and give them a mother's love all at the same time. I feel pummelled," said Dina, in Egypt.

Over 150 organisations are providing services or support to Syrian refugee women and their families. The research found many examples of refugee women taking the initiative, supporting each other and working to find solutions to their daily struggle. It also highlighted many acts of kindness and generosity by host countries and communities.

But it found this assistance fell short of what was needed, and called on donors to do more to help Syrian refugee women get back on their feet and earn enough money to live. With visa or other restrictions separating one in five of the women from their husbands or families, the report also asked host governments to find solutions to reunite them with their families. Host communities also need massive support. Many of these women's difficulties – and rising tensions - reflect more general concerns in the communities around them.

With 2.8 million refugees and millions more internally displaced, Syria has become the largest displacement crisis in the world. Since the start of 2014, more than 100,000 Syrian refugees have registered in neighbouring countries every month. The total number of refugees is expected to reach 3.6 million by the end of the year.

FURTHER INFORMATION

The full report and media page including photos and videos of the women interviewed in this report can be found here: http://unhcr.org/womanalonemedia/

Share

Vacancy Notices:

There are currently no vacancies available.

Trenutno nema otvorenih natječaja.

Website building, maintenance and hosting: media-trend.hr